- Get PDF - Production rights in European agriculture
- Supporting farmers and protecting food security
- Rein in dairy exports to our continent: African farmers to EU
- Agriculture statistics at regional level
Environmental Law Review 13 2 : , European agriculture and Third World agriculture. Summary Report of the Seminar. The role of intellectual property rights in modern production agriculture. Genes for the future: discovery ownership access 5, Perspectives of modern information and communication systems in agriculture, food production and environment control. Perspectives of modern information and communication systems in agriculture, food production and environment control Volume A and Volume B: Second European Conference of the European Federation for Information Technology in Agriculture, Food and the Environment, Bonn, Germany, September pp.
Volume A; pp. Volume B. European association for animal production publication 47 amelioration genetique des bovins sous climat sud mediterraneen european association for animal production publication 47 genetic improvement of cattle in southern mediterranean climates proceedings of a symposium organized by the tunisian office of breeding and pasturage in collaboration with the federation europeenne de zootechnie european zootechny federation united nations food and agriculture organization and the internationa.
Protecting and exploiting biotechnological inventions in agriculture Patent rights versus plant breeders rights? Medical Law Review 24 1 : , Reproductive Health Matters 22 44 : , Most Shared. Unfortunately, these very powerful firms ensure by various means e. Accordingly, the food corporations remain free to promote their most unhealthy products without constraint. Similarly, in the context of the EU Platform on Diet, Physical Activity and Health, EC representatives discuss a similar agenda with other representatives of the international food industry .
Capewell et al. Scientific conspiracies are alleged rather than admitting that each of these is based on a solid scientific consensus ;. Logical flaws in flaws in the arguments of the food industry but which may initially sound plausible ;. Evidence severely selected to suit the case of the food industry, with all conflicting facts ignored;. Absolute perfection demanded of public health advocates e. Zany arguments and distractions, to draw attention away from the main issue and which require the use of scarce public health resources to refute ;.
Experts bought by the rich industries, to undermine good science, or to publish conveniently contradictory findings. Meanwhile, TV programmes designed for children include in their advertising slots advertisements for foods likely to promote obesity; children, of all people, should be prevented from exposure to such material, so likely to be damaging to their longer term health as adults .
It is evident that thus far the EC in particular DG Agriculture and Rural Development has awarded much lower priority to healthy nutrition in Europe than it has to some of the other challenges it faces in relation to food production and distribution, and also that trade always seems to have priority over nutrition . However, as public health can boast of so many successes in the interests of improved population health e. Public health advocacy involving civil society has been very active at EU level  , . Smith in  and Hochschild in  have indicated the lessons in advocacy, learned from the slavery abolitionists, which it is suggested might be learned and adopted by public health advocates for improved population nutrition.
An outline campaign strategy might be summarised thus:. Develop a coalition of public health bodies, NGOs, etc. Identify principal enemies of this campaign, and identify means to repudiate the arguments they are likely to propagate;. Develop an appropriate plan for phased interventions; these actions should be planned to be continuous and relevant on many fronts to the various necessary changes needed to achieve healthier nutrition;.
Identify from best science the means to support and justify all of these actions; however, this science must be presented in ways that the public can understand and appreciate, e. Recruit political advocates e. MEPs and MPs , who can be primed to ask appropriate political questions, based on evidence that can be provided to them. It is evident that current nutrition in Europe, and the policies which influence this, are not conducive to good health  ,  , and that thus far public health has not had much success in addressing these challenges except in a few countries, such as Finland .
Public health has so many successes to be proud of; public health advocates must now resolve to achieve healthy nutrition in Europe, through reform of regulation of agriculture and of the food industry. Providing support to this aim must be a prime responsibility for every public health scientist and practitioner who is working to achieve healthier nutrition in Europe. Conflicts of interest and source of funding: The authors declare no conflicts of interest. This study was unfunded.
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National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Published online Mar Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Nov 20; Accepted Mar This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Diet includes many risk factors for the most common non-communicable diseases NCDs , but diets consumed in Europe and in other parts of the developed world are not being modified sufficiently to take account of health priorities concerning, in particular, the prevention of NCDs, while much excess mortality and morbidity could be prevented by government actions to regulate appropriately both the agricultural and food industries, and to apply appropriate taxes and subsidies to promote healthier nutrition.
Get PDF - Production rights in European agriculture
Keywords: diet, public health nutrition, risk factors, European Commission, Common Agricultural Policy, public health advocacy. Background As in other parts of the world, the diets eaten by the peoples of Europe have been determined mostly by history, culture and tradition. Development of the Common Agricultural Policy In the circumstances, as described above, it is unsurprising that the priorities for the designers of the original CAP were two-fold: firstly, to ensure future food security in Europe, so that starvation such as that experienced in the s should never again be experienced, and secondly, to ensure that the farming community received adequate financial rewards for their work, so as to protect the viability of Europe's rural economies, and to discourage agricultural labourers from leaving the land in the hope of finding higher paid employment in cities.
These two priorities were guaranteed and achieved by two aspects of the CAP  ,  : by providing farmers with generous production subsidies; these guaranteed larger subsidy payments to match increased production.
Supporting farmers and protecting food security
Health challenges posed by the Common Agricultural Policy It has already been demonstrated that the CAP promoted maximised production of beef and dairy products, both containing high levels of saturated fat; beef over-production has been one of the contributors to there being such a large number of burger bars on every high street owing to the availability of large quantities of relatively cheap subsidised beef , while the dairy industry has worked hard to invent ever increasing numbers of attractive secondary dairy products, as a means of selling their high production.
Necessary reforms of agricultural policy Since there have been a number of further reforms to the CAP, but these have been not been designed to promote any fundamental changes in its operation . Accordingly, what is needed is reform along the following lines in the interests of future improved public health nutrition in Europe  ,  ,  : inserting improved public health nutrition for Europe's populations as a stated objective of the CAP; gradual phase-out of subsidy for all mammalian meat production possibly an exception might be made for entirely grass-fed beef cattle, the meat from which is somewhat less saturated fat-rich ; gradual phase-out of all subsidy for dairy production, other than for production of very low fat milk; gradual phase-out of all sugar production subsidies; inclusion of fish farming and production of vegetable protein products e.
The Food Industry and Food Marketing The nutritional risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and obesity have been well known and understood now for some years, and yet these health problems remain prevalent. In the case of food, the food industry itself could be regarded as such a vector for disease  , as a successful vector might be described as one which, while being a carrier of disease, also gives its victims some kind of limited satisfaction, at least in the short term The food industry is in the business of making profits from selling foods.
An agenda for public health nutrition advocacy It is evident that thus far the EC in particular DG Agriculture and Rural Development has awarded much lower priority to healthy nutrition in Europe than it has to some of the other challenges it faces in relation to food production and distribution, and also that trade always seems to have priority over nutrition . An outline campaign strategy might be summarised thus: Describe clear vision of what needs to be achieved and of what can be done; Identify who should lead such a campaign, both at EU and member state levels; Develop a coalition of public health bodies, NGOs, etc.
Footnotes Conflicts of interest and source of funding: The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
References 1. Truman Presidential Museum and Library. Garfield S. Our Hidden Lives. London: Ebury Press; Elinder LS.
Rein in dairy exports to our continent: African farmers to EU
Public health should return to the core of CAP reform. Whitehead M, Nordgren P. F-serien 8. Folkhalsoaspekter pa EU:s gemensamma jordbrukspolitik. Statens Folkhalsoininstitut. Matthews A. CAP Reform.
Health at the Heart of CAP. London: Faculty of Public Health Medicine; A CAP on Health?
Agriculture statistics at regional level
London: Faculty of Public Health; Europe agrees to take the narrow road. Murray JL, et al.
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Disability-adjusted life years [DALYs] for diseases and injuries in 21 regions, — a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study Lim SS, et al. A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study Reddy K, Katan M. Public Health Nutrition. Beliveau R, Gingras D. Role of nutrition in preventing cancer. Cam Fam Physician.
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