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- The Political Economy of Regionalism: The Case of Southern Africa | UNU-CRIS
- A Solution for Africa: The Coexistence of Regionalism
- Research in Political Economy
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If the problem persists, please try again in a little while. Hughes, Nicola Phillips, Ben Rosamond. No cover image. Read preview. Synopsis Following the financial crisis at the end of the twentieth century, regionalisms in the global political economy have evolved in a number of ways. This informative book brings together the leading scholars in the field to provide cutting edge analyses of contemporary regions and regionalist projects. Providing an innovative integration of theoretical issues with sophisticated analyses of a wide range of international case studies, the chapters systematically consider the relationship between globalization, financial crisis, and regional projects.
In combination, the contributions to this volume provide the widest possible base within the literature for a truly comparative study of contemporary regionalism. Excerpt The study of regions, regionalism and regionalization has once again come to prominence. Coleman; Geoffrey R.geithicksembnara.tk
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The Political Economy of Regionalism: The Case of Southern Africa | UNU-CRIS
See details. See all 2 brand new listings. Buy It Now. It is difficult to dispute that state-centrism was a major flaw of old regionalism studies. Bach, ; Hettne et al. It is our conviction that focusing on micro-level regional processes—on micro-regions themselves—helps overcome this difficulty. Frequently, top-down activities merely grant state legitimacy over processes that have long-existed and that are least obligated to what administrations may or may not pursue.
This introductory chapter seeks to do the following.
The next two sections describe the historical background to the formation of the MDC and the stated objectives and major projects of the MDC respectively. The third section outlines the purpose of this book. The fourth rather comprehensive section discusses and defines the overall theoretical framework guiding the analysis in the volume, namely the new regionalism approach NRA.
Finally, the structure of the book is described. The process however began in August when the Ministers of Transport of Mozambique and South Africa, Mac Maharaj and Paulo Muxanga respectively, met to set in motion a plan to establish a developmental axis between the port of Maputo and the industrial centre of South Africa Gauteng. This process can be seen very much as an attempt to reconstruct a cross-border relationship and micro-region that had effectively existed since at least the industrialisation of the area around present-day Johannesburg since the late s.
Indeed, the geographical area pointing up north from the eastern part of South Africa to Mozambique and Swaziland has constituted a historical regional space with the Maputo corridor as one core for the people of southeastern Africa for centuries McGregor, Since ancient times there has existed a migratory and trading tradition through and across this geographic space.
With the brutal incorporation of the peoples of this micro-region into capitalist colonial economies, many of these long-standing patterns were formalised by the Europeans as a means of control. After the so-called pacification campaign carried out by Portugal in Mozambique in , an accord was signed to regulate the influx of labour to the mines in the Transvaal in This arrangement allowed White South African capital to exploit Black Mozambican labour through various agreements with the metropole, often against the wishes of the local Portuguese.
Such arrangements made Mozambique a regional conduit and effective labour reserve for the minerals-based industries in South Africa Smith, This process not only locked southern Mozambique and the Johannesburg environs together, it served to crystallise an already nascent micro-region.
Importantly, the agreement gave the WNLA exclusive rights to recruit Black labour in southern Mozambique in return for directing Going in the opposite direction, hundreds of thousands of Mozambicans travelled to work as migrant labourers in the minerals industries along the Witwatersrand, as well as others finding work as agricultural contract workers Niemann, 9. Thus, it should be clear that migration was a crucial component of this special and asymmetric corridor see Baptista- Lundin and Taylor, chapter 8.
After independence the new Mozambican government put in place a planning apparatus designed to foster national territorial integration, for instance upgrading the North-South highway.
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This however was thwarted by the civil war with Renamo and South African sabotage. The MDC and corridor strategies in general can thus be seen as a revitalisation of past development strategies advanced by Maputo Sidaway, This being so, the historical corridor is larger than just Maputo as an end- station. Agricultural products have long been brought in from other parts of Mozambique and sold in Maputo, and revenues are used to buy goods in South Africa and Swaziland and other neighbouring countries, to be sold back in Maputo see Baptista-Lundin and Taylor, chapter 8; Van den Berg, This movement and trading has created a never-ending cycle of new types of business, hawking, trading and interaction, increasing the flow of people along the corridor.
A Solution for Africa: The Coexistence of Regionalism
In this way Maputo attracts people from all over Mozambique and neighbouring countries, with many people staying on in Maputo to join the increasingly informal market, often connected to a regularly or daily crossing of borders to buy products for sale, both in Maputo and further afield. Various attempts have been made to regulate and control borders, smuggling, informal trading, hawking and migration, but people have often found other ways to get around these restrictions. In fact, the insurgency by Renamo simply intensified and opened up further space for informal cross-border linkages and trading networks, which centred around Maputo but at the same time permeated the whole micro-region McGregor, This cross-border interaction has been further intensified by another important trend that emerged when the socialist experience was abandoned in Mozambique and the old safety net provided by the state gradually disappeared Simpson, ; Abrahamsson and Nilsson, Despite attempts albeit erratically to provide some form of economic incentives to agriculture Cravinho, , many people left this traditional occupation and entered the market sector, mostly in the cities Kyle, In commerce had already surpassed agriculture as the main occupation for women in Maputo Little and Lundin, The informal market expanded to all corners of the country as well as linking up with neighbouring countries, marking the beginning of the institution of mukhero, a largely informal movement of people, mostly women, buying and transporting all types of goods, vegetables, fruits, clothes and small home appliances, between Mozambique and South Africa and Swaziland, to buy products to sell on the informal market Baptista-Lundin and Taylor, chapter 8.
Initially it was mainly a question of acquiring agricultural products to supply a market in need, because the situation of war had cut the roads to Maputo from the countryside. Later on, other products were incorporated into the mukhero. In summary, it was upon such historically rooted and extensive cross-border if informal initiatives that the MDC sought to build upon, in a wider attempt to restructure the micro-region along certain, more guided, lines. To rehabilitate the primary infrastructure network along the corridor, notably road, rail, port and dredging, and border posts, with the participation of the private sector in order to have minimum impact on the fiscus.
To maximise investment in both the inherent potential of the corridor area and in the added opportunities which infrastructure rehabilitation will create, including the provision of access to global capital and facilitation of regional economic integration. To maximise social development, employment opportunities and increase the participation of historically disadvantaged communities; and 4.
To ensure sustainability by developing policy, strategies and frameworks that ensure a holistic, participatory and environmentally sustainable approach to development. In other words, the MDC contained a very comprehensive investment portfolio. A rough distinction can be made between infrastructural projects and the major economic development projects. Firstly, the Witbank-Maputo N4 toll road. In addition to these gigantic projects there were a significant number of other investment projects, in fields such as: mining a magnetite, vanadium and heavy minerals project , energy, chemicals, manufacturing, agriculture, forestry, commerce and tourism eco-tourism, lodge and game-park development and so on see De Beer and Arwkright, chapter 2.
Furthermore, subsequent policy-makers developed MDC technical support programmes in order to complement the projects mentioned above first and foremost in order to achieve MDC objective 3 and 4. Some of the most important support programmes included the cluster and linkage processes; policy research and capacity building; strategic environmental management plan SEMP ; local economic development LED ; and institution building.
Essentially, the thrust of this book is to answer key questions such as: who decides what and with what means in the MDC i. In the literature there is a tendency to focus on either governance or development, which seems to be explained by the disciplinary divide between political science and economics. This volume seeks to bridge this gap and by doing so contribute to interdisciplinary inquiries and a broader research agenda associated with regional development projects in Africa.
The relationship between governance and development is both multifaceted and symbiotic. Indeed, the MDC represents an interesting form of cross-border governance that needs to be analysed in order to expand our understanding of multilevel and transnational governance. This in turn further contributes to the study of development within a transnational context, a most meaningful task in the current epoch of a rapidly globalising and regionalising world.
Development is presumed to be a spin-off from such scenarios. Governance is thus intimately related to development within the SDI methodology. In fact, governance can be seen as the precondition for development. Seen in this way, development can perhaps be seen as the main test of effective governance.
Research in Political Economy
Although there is a crucial and much neglected relationship between governance and development, which this volume seeks to explore, it is still fruitful to raise some detailed research questions with regard specifically to each of these two phenomena. This formula groups a number of various agents and stakeholders, such as central governments, development finance institutions, provincial and local governments, private businesses, interest groups and local communities together, reflecting what has been seen as a shift from government to governance.
Does power lie with the central governments or with provincial administrations? Where does local government fit in and how is private business and civil society accommodated? Indeed, what stakeholders are included and what excluded in the rather complex and network-like governance structures that characterise the MDC? Nevertheless, this volume does seek to analyse what tangible development effects have arisen as a direct outcome of investment and infrastructural projects within the MDC framework.
First of all, it is crucial to assess the nature of the development strategy as such. What type of development if any is actually being introduced? Certainly, it is important to ask in what ways and to what extent have the jobs created in the MDC contributed to empowerment and capacity-building in the local communities? Have other stated goals of the MDC been satisfied, such as new production opportunities for small, micro and medium size businesses?
Furthermore, in what ways have the various initiatives associated with the MDC impacted upon issues of gender relations in general and the empowerment of women in particular? Its success or otherwise and the processes engendered by the various projects within the MDC ambit are thus of crucial importance.